air jordans canada goose outlet legend blue 11s jordan retro 7 beats by dre cheap Michael Kors outlet jordan 7 canada goose outlet jordan retro 7 jordan retro 7 legend blue 11s canada goose jordan retro 7 canada goose outlet nike retro jordans coach factory retro jordans nike legend blue 11s beats by dre cheap louis vuitton outlet louis vuitton outlet louis vuitton outlet beats by dre cheap beats by dre cheap uggs outlet louis vuitton outlet jordan retro 12 uggs outlet jordan retro 12 louis vuitton louis vuitton sac nike air max jordan retro 12 jordan 12 moncler jackets louis vuitton sac nike free run moncler jackets jordan 7 retro jordans retro jordans jordan retro 7 canada goose outlet legend blue 11s jordan 7 jordan retro 7 canada goose canada goose outlet jordan retro 7 jordan retro 7 nike legend blue 11s Michael Kors outlet jordan retro 7 legend blue 11s air jordans canada goose outlet coach outlet moncler jackets coach outlet jordan retro 12 jordan retro 12 louis vuitton sac louis vuitton outlet louis vuitton sac beats by dre cheap jordan 12 nike free run nike air max louis vuitton louis vuitton sac beats by dre cheap moncler jackets sac louis vuitton nike air max moncler jackets louis vuitton outlet jordan retro 12 canada goose outlet retro jordans Michael Kors outlet legend blue 11s canada goose outlet coach outlet coach factory canada goose outlet retro jordans Michael Kors outlet jordan retro 7 legend blue 11s canada goose outlet canada goose outlet beats by dre cheap canada goose outlet canada goose legend blue 11s retro jordans canada goose outlet moncler jackets nike free run nike air max moncler jackets nike air max nike air max uggs outlet beats by dre cheap uggs coach outlet nike free run louis vuitton outlet nike free run uggs outlet jordan retro 12 louis vuitton sac louis vuitton sac beats by dre cheap moncler jackets nike air max canada goose outlet nike jordan retro 7 jordan retro 7 canada goose outlet canada goose outlet nike jordan retro 7 legend blue 11s Michael Kors outlet coach factory Michael Kors outlet canada goose outlet legend blue 11s air jordans nike Michael Kors outlet Michael Kors outlet jordan retro 11 legend blue 11s beats by dre cheap louis vuitton outlet sac louis vuitton louis vuitton outlet uggs nike air max louis vuitton sac nike air max beats by dre cheap beats by dre cheap nike air max jordan 12 nike air max moncler jackets nike free run coach outlet coach outlet moncler jackets jordan retro 12 coach outlet Michael Kors outlet Michael Kors outlet legend blue 11s Michael Kors outlet canada goose outlet nike coach outlet Michael Kors outlet canada goose jordan retro 7 canada goose nike retro jordans canada goose outlet beats by dre cheap canada goose outlet retro jordans Michael Kors outlet legend blue 11s Michael Kors outlet jordan retro 12 nike free run moncler jackets nike free run louis vuitton sac jordan retro 12 moncler jackets louis vuitton sac louis vuitton louis vuitton outlet coach outlet uggs outlet moncler jackets louis vuitton louis vuitton outlet nike free run coach outlet louis vuitton outlet jordan retro 12 moncler jackets jordan 4 jordan 4 jordan retro 11 jordan 11 jordan retro 11 louis vuitton outlet michael kors outlet air jordan 11 canada goose sale uggs on sale jordan retro 11 louis vuitton pas cher jordan 4 jordan retro 7 jordan 11 louis vuitton outlet jordan retro 11 louis vuitton outlet jordan 11 louis vuitton outlet canada goose outlet french blue 7s jordan retro 4 uggs on sale louis vuitton jordan retro 11 louis vuitton outlet jordan retro 11 air jordans jordan 13 canada goose outlet jordan 11 canada goose sale canada goose outlet jordan 11 legend blue michael kors outlet jordan 7 french blue jordan 7 french blue jordan 11 legend blue 11s air jordan 4 jordan retro 11 french blue 7s michael kors outlet jordan 11 louis vuitton outlet uggs outlet michael kors outlet jordan 11 jordan 4 air jordans jordan retro 11 louis vuitton outlet louis vuitton jordan 11 jordan retro 11 jordan retro 11 louis vuitton outlet michael kors outlet jordan retro 11 uggs on sale red cements 10s louis vuitton outlet jordan 11 air jordans jordan retro 11 michael kors outlet michael kors outlet french blue 7s louis vuitton outlet jordan retro 11 jordan 11 canada goose outlet jordan 4 oreo michael kors outlet michael kors outlet jordan 11 jordan retro 4 jordan retro 11 michael kors outlet
Home > Learn > Genetics 101: Genetics and the Future of Medicine
Untitled Document

 

 

beats by dre cheap coach outlet canada goose canada goose outlet legend blue 11s legend blue 11s legend blue 11s beats by dre cheap jordan retro 7 legend blue 11s jordan retro 7 Michael Kors outlet nike nike jordan retro 7 jordan retro 7 Michael Kors outlet legend blue 11s canada goose outlet retro jordans beats by dre cheap louis vuitton outlet louis vuitton outlet nike free run jordan retro 12 coach outlet louis vuitton sac sac louis vuitton louis vuitton sac moncler jackets jordan retro 12 moncler jackets beats by dre cheap moncler jackets jordan retro 12 moncler jackets louis vuitton sac louis vuitton outlet moncler jackets beats by dre cheap jordan retro 7 Michael Kors outlet beats by dre cheap jordan retro 7 jordan retro 7 canada goose outlet canada goose outlet canada goose Michael Kors outlet beats by dre cheap jordan retro 7 retro jordans nike Michael Kors outlet canada goose outlet legend blue 11s Michael Kors outlet canada goose outlet nike beats by dre cheap beats by dre cheap jordan retro 12 coach outlet louis vuitton outlet jordan retro 12 louis vuitton outlet louis vuitton outlet jordan retro 12 nike air max jordan retro 12 beats by dre cheap coach outlet louis vuitton sac coach outlet jordan retro 12 nike free run moncler jackets moncler jackets nike air max jordan retro 12 canada goose outlet air jordans jordan 7 canada goose outlet jordan retro 7 canada goose outlet jordan retro 7 Michael Kors outlet nike canada goose outlet canada goose outlet Michael Kors outlet nike coach outlet jordan retro 7 canada goose outlet retro jordans jordan retro 7 retro jordans Michael Kors outlet beats by dre cheap jordan retro 12 louis vuitton outlet louis vuitton outlet beats by dre cheap uggs outlet beats by dre cheap louis vuitton sac nike air max jordan retro 12 louis vuitton outlet beats by dre cheap nike air max jordan retro 12 moncler jackets moncler jackets moncler jackets louis vuitton sac jordan retro 12 uggs outlet coach outlet jordan retro 7 jordan retro 7 canada goose outlet Michael Kors outlet Michael Kors outlet jordan retro 7 coach outlet jordan retro 7 nike nike Michael Kors outlet jordan retro 7 canada goose Michael Kors outlet jordan 7 canada goose outlet coach factory Michael Kors outlet Michael Kors outlet louis vuitton outlet louis vuitton outlet jordan 12 moncler jackets louis vuitton outlet jordan retro 12 louis vuitton outlet jordan retro 12 louis vuitton outlet coach outlet jordan retro 12 coach outlet beats by dre cheap nike air max jordan retro 12 nike free run sac louis vuitton jordan retro 12 moncler jackets louis vuitton outlet Michael Kors outlet legend blue 11s canada goose canada goose outlet Michael Kors outlet Michael Kors outlet nike coach outlet Michael Kors outlet jordan retro 7 canada goose outlet beats by dre coach outlet legend blue 11s Michael Kors outlet jordan retro 7 nike nike Michael Kors outlet legend blue 11s louis vuitton sac louis vuitton outlet louis vuitton sac nike free run uggs uggs jordan 12 moncler jackets beats by dre cheap nike free run louis vuitton outlet beats by dre cheap beats by dre cheap jordan retro 12 jordan 12 uggs outlet jordan retro 12 louis vuitton outlet beats by dre cheap louis vuitton sac jordan 11 legend blue michael kors outlet louis vuitton outlet oreo 4s jordan retro 11 uggs outlet louis vuitton outlet louis vuitton outlet michael kors outlet jordan 11 michael kors outlet air jordan 4 jordan retro 11 oreo 4s jordan 11 uggs outlet michael kors outlet jordan 11 jordan retro 11 jordan retro 7 louis vuitton outlet jordan 11 canada goose sale michael kors outlet michael kors outlet jordan retro 4 jordan retro 4 jordan 11 louis vuitton outlet legend blue 11s legend blue 11s louis vuitton outlet jordan 7 french blue air jordans jordan 4 michael kors outlet louis vuitton french blue 7s legend blue 11s jordan 11 legend blue jordan retro 11 michael kors outlet jordan 11 louis vuitton outlet air jordan 4 jordan 11 jordan retro 11 michael kors outlet jordan retro 4 jordan 11 louis vuitton outlet jordan 7 french blue jordan 4 jordan retro 11 jordan retro 11 jordan 11 louis vuitton outlet louis vuitton outlet michael kors outlet jordan 11 legend blue jordan retro 4 jordan retro 11 french blue 7s michael kors outlet jordan 11 jordan 11 jordan retro 11 jordan retro 4 jordan 11 canada goose sale michael kors outlet retro jordans louis vuitton outlet jordan 11 jordan retro 7 canada goose outlet michael kors outlet louis vuitton outlet michael kors outlet legend blue 11s
Genetics 101
  Genetics and the Future of Medicine

By Amanda Ewart Toland, PhD

Reviewed by Karen Hales, PhD
Last updated January 3, 2011



With the human genome decoded, researchers have the daunting task of sifting through the newly-discovered genes in search of those that lead to disease. These efforts will change the way we view diseases and receive medical care.

 
 
 

What Are Genetic Researchers Really Trying to Figure out?

The Human Genome Project recently announced that they had sequenced all of the human chromosomes — about three billion bases long. In itself, this is a huge achievement, but knowing the sequence doesn't tell researchers what the 30,000 to 50,000 genes actually do in the body. Their next step is to figure out what the genes do, and what role these genes may play in disease.
Once researchers know which genes are involved in a disease, they can develop a test to screen people who are at risk and also start looking for a cure.

Once researchers know which genes are involved in a disease, they can develop a test to screen people who are at risk and also start looking for a cure. A diagnostic test by itself will not cure the disease, but it can help identify high-risk people who may require more intensive screening or preventative action. Knowing what genes cause a given disease can also help researchers understand what goes wrong in that disease, which can help drive the search for drugs that counteract the problem.

top

 

All Discoveries Are not of Equal Importance

When newspapers announce that a gene has been discovered for a certain disease, it can really mean a number of things.

  • Finding the gene: Sometimes, researchers have identified a gene that definitely causes a disease, such as the discovery of the gene for hemophilia or cystic fibrosis. Such a finding does not necessarily mean that researchers can cure the disease, or that a genetic test is immediately available, but it does mean that the medical community may be closer to an possible cure.
  • Finding one of many genes: Other times, researchers have discovered a gene that plays a role in a small subset of people who get a common disease, such as the genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, which are the cause for some people's breast cancer. Again, finding these genes puts researchers one step closer to a cure or genetic test that can help some people with the disease.
  • Finding a gene in animals: One way to understand gene function in in humans is to find and manipulate a gene that causes an animal — such as the mouse or fruit fly — to show symptoms similar to a human disease. Animals have genes that are very similar to our own, so these discoveries help point researchers to the biological function of a human disease gene. However, it is a long path from finding a gene in flies or mice to finding a genetic treatment for the human disease.

top

 

The Impact on Diagnostics

There will be more genetic tests available to help doctors diagnose the cause of a disease.
As researchers discover the role genes play in disease, there will be more genetic tests available to help doctors make diagnoses and pinpoint the cause of the disease. For example, heart disease can be caused either by a mutation in certain genes, or by environmental factors such as diet or exercise. Doctors can easily diagnose a person with heart disease once they have symptoms. However, doctors can't easily tell what the cause for the heart disease is in each person. Thus, all people receive the same treatment regardless of underlying cause of the disease. In the future, a panel of genetic tests for heart disease might reveal the specific genetic factors that are involved in a given person. People with a specific mutation may be able to receive treatment that is targeted to that mutation, thereby treating the cause of the disease rather than just the symptoms. Also, people with genetic risk may be able to receive preventitive treatment before symptoms become apparent.

top

 

The Impact on Risk Assessment

Currently, doctors take a brief family medical history for their patients. This helps primary care physicians tell if there are genetic factors that may influence a patient's health. But a family history does not provide a doctor with the compete picture of a person's risk. Some people may be at risk for an early-onset disease, even if they do not have a family history of that disease. Similarly, not every person with a strong family history of a disease will inherit the risk factors.

Individual risk assessments will be created for each patient based on that patient's set of genes
Doctors are just beginning to be able to screen people for genetic risk factors present in their family. Some of these predictive tests include testing for predisposition to certain types of hereditary colon and breast cancer. In the future, it may be possible for doctors to screen their patients for many genetic-based risks — those that run in their family and those that don't — all at the same time. Individual risk assessments will be created for each patient based on that patient's set of genes.

 top

 

The Impact on Prevention and Treatment Strategies

Knowing their personal risk makes it possible for individuals to decrease their chance developing the disease
By knowing which genes are involved in disease, researchers can develop better medical treatments and prevention strategies that are specific for those gene defects. Knowing their personal risk makes it possible for individuals to decrease their chance developing the disease through lifestyle changes, more aggressive disease surveillance, and preventative medical treatments. In certain instances, we already have more personalized medicine because of advances in genetics; in the future these medical benefits will only expand.
Personalized Medicine

Different people metabolize drugs differently. For example, drugs quickly leave the bloodstream in some people, and linger for a long time in other people. Many of these differences are due to genetic variation. Drugs in the future may not only be better targeted to the cause of the disease, there may also be better choices for people who react to drugs in specific ways.


top

 

<<Previous Article
Main Topic Page
Next Article>>
 Changing Your Risk

 

Untitled Document

©Copyright 2011 Latest Medical, Inc.. All Rights Reserved.
Contact Us

coach factory coach outlet canada goose outlet Michael Kors outlet legend blue 11s legend blue 11s coach outlet legend blue 11s jordan retro 7 Michael Kors outlet canada goose outlet nike jordan retro 7 jordan retro 7 Michael Kors outlet canada goose outlet canada goose outlet retro jordans Michael Kors outlet coach factory louis vuitton outlet nike free run beats by dre cheap nike air max moncler jackets sac louis vuitton sac louis vuitton louis vuitton sac louis vuitton outlet moncler jackets jordan retro 12 moncler jackets beats by dre cheap jordan retro 12 jordan retro 12 louis vuitton louis vuitton sac moncler jackets beats by dre cheap jordan retro 12 canada goose outlet canada goose nike Michael Kors outlet canada goose canada goose outlet beats by dre air jordans retro jordans legend blue 11s Michael Kors outlet canada goose canada goose outlet jordan retro 7 legend blue 11s Michael Kors outlet Michael Kors outlet legend blue 11s beats by dre cheap jordan retro 7 louis vuitton outlet moncler jackets louis vuitton outlet jordan retro 12 jordan retro 12 louis vuitton outlet nike air max nike free run coach outlet nike free run moncler jackets beats by dre cheap moncler jackets louis vuitton sac beats by dre cheap louis vuitton sac coach outlet louis vuitton outlet beats by dre cheap coach outlet canada goose outlet jordan retro 7 beats by dre cheap canada goose outlet beats by dre legend blue 11s Michael Kors outlet retro jordans Michael Kors outlet jordan retro 7 jordan retro 7 coach factory jordan retro 7 Michael Kors outlet Michael Kors outlet coach outlet canada goose retro jordans canada goose outlet beats by dre cheap moncler jackets moncler jackets sac louis vuitton beats by dre cheap jordan retro 12 louis vuitton outlet moncler jackets louis vuitton sac beats by dre cheap beats by dre cheap moncler jackets louis vuitton nike free run louis vuitton sac louis vuitton outlet louis vuitton sac jordan retro 12 moncler jackets moncler jackets uggs outlet legend blue 11s Michael Kors outlet Michael Kors outlet canada goose outlet jordan retro 7 legend blue 11s Michael Kors outlet beats by dre jordan retro 7 Michael Kors outlet retro jordans retro jordans nike canada goose outlet retro jordans canada goose outlet coach factory retro jordans coach outlet air jordans moncler jackets moncler jackets beats by dre cheap louis vuitton outlet louis vuitton outlet louis vuitton sac beats by dre cheap nike air max jordan retro 12 louis vuitton outlet nike free run jordan retro 12 jordan retro 12 moncler jackets moncler jackets jordan retro 12 jordan retro 12 moncler jackets sac louis vuitton moncler jackets coach factory jordan retro 7 canada goose outlet retro jordans canada goose outlet coach factory canada goose beats by dre cheap canada goose retro jordans nike air jordans retro jordans retro jordans jordan 7 canada goose outlet legend blue 11s retro jordans jordan retro 7 coach outlet jordan retro 12 louis vuitton outlet nike air max moncler jackets louis vuitton sac beats by dre cheap coach outlet nike air max moncler jackets moncler jackets moncler jackets moncler jackets moncler jackets jordan retro 12 uggs moncler jackets louis vuitton outlet jordan retro 12 jordan retro 12 louis vuitton sac jordan retro 4 michael kors outlet jordan retro 11 jordan 11 jordan 11 uggs outlet louis vuitton outlet jordan 11 louis vuitton outlet red cements 10s air jordan 4 jordan retro 11 uggs outlet french blue 7s louis vuitton outlet jordan 11 legend blue jordan 4 jordan retro 11 jordan 10 red cements michael kors outlet jordan 13 michael kors outlet air jordans jordan 11 jordan retro 7 jordan 11 jordan retro 4 louis vuitton outlet jordan 4 jordan retro 11 legend blue 11s jordan retro 11 air jordan 11 air jordans jordan 4 michael kors outlet louis vuitton outlet french blue 7s louis vuitton outlet louis vuitton outlet louis vuitton outlet air jordans retro jordans french blue 7s uggs on sale michael kors outlet michael kors outlet jordan retro 11 canada goose uggs on sale jordan 11 jordan 11 louis vuitton outlet french blue 7s jordan 4 uggs outlet air jordan 4 jordan 10 red cements jordan 4 jordan 11 legend blue legend blue 11s louis vuitton outlet uggs outlet michael kors outlet michael kors outlet jordan retro 11 michael kors outlet jordan 7 french blue air jordans louis vuitton outlet jordan 11 michael kors outlet jordan 11 jordan 7 french blue michael kors outlet jordan retro 4 jordan retro 4 jordan retro 11 michael kors outlet jordan retro 11