air jordans canada goose outlet legend blue 11s jordan retro 7 beats by dre cheap Michael Kors outlet jordan 7 canada goose outlet jordan retro 7 jordan retro 7 legend blue 11s canada goose jordan retro 7 canada goose outlet nike retro jordans coach factory retro jordans nike legend blue 11s beats by dre cheap louis vuitton outlet louis vuitton outlet louis vuitton outlet beats by dre cheap beats by dre cheap uggs outlet louis vuitton outlet jordan retro 12 uggs outlet jordan retro 12 louis vuitton louis vuitton sac nike air max jordan retro 12 jordan 12 moncler jackets louis vuitton sac nike free run moncler jackets jordan 7 retro jordans retro jordans jordan retro 7 canada goose outlet legend blue 11s jordan 7 jordan retro 7 canada goose canada goose outlet jordan retro 7 jordan retro 7 nike legend blue 11s Michael Kors outlet jordan retro 7 legend blue 11s air jordans canada goose outlet coach outlet moncler jackets coach outlet jordan retro 12 jordan retro 12 louis vuitton sac louis vuitton outlet louis vuitton sac beats by dre cheap jordan 12 nike free run nike air max louis vuitton louis vuitton sac beats by dre cheap moncler jackets sac louis vuitton nike air max moncler jackets louis vuitton outlet jordan retro 12 canada goose outlet retro jordans Michael Kors outlet legend blue 11s canada goose outlet coach outlet coach factory canada goose outlet retro jordans Michael Kors outlet jordan retro 7 legend blue 11s canada goose outlet canada goose outlet beats by dre cheap canada goose outlet canada goose legend blue 11s retro jordans canada goose outlet moncler jackets nike free run nike air max moncler jackets nike air max nike air max uggs outlet beats by dre cheap uggs coach outlet nike free run louis vuitton outlet nike free run uggs outlet jordan retro 12 louis vuitton sac louis vuitton sac beats by dre cheap moncler jackets nike air max canada goose outlet nike jordan retro 7 jordan retro 7 canada goose outlet canada goose outlet nike jordan retro 7 legend blue 11s Michael Kors outlet coach factory Michael Kors outlet canada goose outlet legend blue 11s air jordans nike Michael Kors outlet Michael Kors outlet jordan retro 11 legend blue 11s beats by dre cheap louis vuitton outlet sac louis vuitton louis vuitton outlet uggs nike air max louis vuitton sac nike air max beats by dre cheap beats by dre cheap nike air max jordan 12 nike air max moncler jackets nike free run coach outlet coach outlet moncler jackets jordan retro 12 coach outlet Michael Kors outlet Michael Kors outlet legend blue 11s Michael Kors outlet canada goose outlet nike coach outlet Michael Kors outlet canada goose jordan retro 7 canada goose nike retro jordans canada goose outlet beats by dre cheap canada goose outlet retro jordans Michael Kors outlet legend blue 11s Michael Kors outlet jordan retro 12 nike free run moncler jackets nike free run louis vuitton sac jordan retro 12 moncler jackets louis vuitton sac louis vuitton louis vuitton outlet coach outlet uggs outlet moncler jackets louis vuitton louis vuitton outlet nike free run coach outlet louis vuitton outlet jordan retro 12 moncler jackets jordan 4 jordan 4 jordan retro 11 jordan 11 jordan retro 11 louis vuitton outlet michael kors outlet air jordan 11 canada goose sale uggs on sale jordan retro 11 louis vuitton pas cher jordan 4 jordan retro 7 jordan 11 louis vuitton outlet jordan retro 11 louis vuitton outlet jordan 11 louis vuitton outlet canada goose outlet french blue 7s jordan retro 4 uggs on sale louis vuitton jordan retro 11 louis vuitton outlet jordan retro 11 air jordans jordan 13 canada goose outlet jordan 11 canada goose sale canada goose outlet jordan 11 legend blue michael kors outlet jordan 7 french blue jordan 7 french blue jordan 11 legend blue 11s air jordan 4 jordan retro 11 french blue 7s michael kors outlet jordan 11 louis vuitton outlet uggs outlet michael kors outlet jordan 11 jordan 4 air jordans jordan retro 11 louis vuitton outlet louis vuitton jordan 11 jordan retro 11 jordan retro 11 louis vuitton outlet michael kors outlet jordan retro 11 uggs on sale red cements 10s louis vuitton outlet jordan 11 air jordans jordan retro 11 michael kors outlet michael kors outlet french blue 7s louis vuitton outlet jordan retro 11 jordan 11 canada goose outlet jordan 4 oreo michael kors outlet michael kors outlet jordan 11 jordan retro 4 jordan retro 11 michael kors outlet
Home > Learn > Genetics 101: Overview of Genetics
Untitled Document

 

 

beats by dre cheap coach outlet canada goose canada goose outlet legend blue 11s legend blue 11s legend blue 11s beats by dre cheap jordan retro 7 legend blue 11s jordan retro 7 Michael Kors outlet nike nike jordan retro 7 jordan retro 7 Michael Kors outlet legend blue 11s canada goose outlet retro jordans beats by dre cheap louis vuitton outlet louis vuitton outlet nike free run jordan retro 12 coach outlet louis vuitton sac sac louis vuitton louis vuitton sac moncler jackets jordan retro 12 moncler jackets beats by dre cheap moncler jackets jordan retro 12 moncler jackets louis vuitton sac louis vuitton outlet moncler jackets beats by dre cheap jordan retro 7 Michael Kors outlet beats by dre cheap jordan retro 7 jordan retro 7 canada goose outlet canada goose outlet canada goose Michael Kors outlet beats by dre cheap jordan retro 7 retro jordans nike Michael Kors outlet canada goose outlet legend blue 11s Michael Kors outlet canada goose outlet nike beats by dre cheap beats by dre cheap jordan retro 12 coach outlet louis vuitton outlet jordan retro 12 louis vuitton outlet louis vuitton outlet jordan retro 12 nike air max jordan retro 12 beats by dre cheap coach outlet louis vuitton sac coach outlet jordan retro 12 nike free run moncler jackets moncler jackets nike air max jordan retro 12 canada goose outlet air jordans jordan 7 canada goose outlet jordan retro 7 canada goose outlet jordan retro 7 Michael Kors outlet nike canada goose outlet canada goose outlet Michael Kors outlet nike coach outlet jordan retro 7 canada goose outlet retro jordans jordan retro 7 retro jordans Michael Kors outlet beats by dre cheap jordan retro 12 louis vuitton outlet louis vuitton outlet beats by dre cheap uggs outlet beats by dre cheap louis vuitton sac nike air max jordan retro 12 louis vuitton outlet beats by dre cheap nike air max jordan retro 12 moncler jackets moncler jackets moncler jackets louis vuitton sac jordan retro 12 uggs outlet coach outlet jordan retro 7 jordan retro 7 canada goose outlet Michael Kors outlet Michael Kors outlet jordan retro 7 coach outlet jordan retro 7 nike nike Michael Kors outlet jordan retro 7 canada goose Michael Kors outlet jordan 7 canada goose outlet coach factory Michael Kors outlet Michael Kors outlet louis vuitton outlet louis vuitton outlet jordan 12 moncler jackets louis vuitton outlet jordan retro 12 louis vuitton outlet jordan retro 12 louis vuitton outlet coach outlet jordan retro 12 coach outlet beats by dre cheap nike air max jordan retro 12 nike free run sac louis vuitton jordan retro 12 moncler jackets louis vuitton outlet Michael Kors outlet legend blue 11s canada goose canada goose outlet Michael Kors outlet Michael Kors outlet nike coach outlet Michael Kors outlet jordan retro 7 canada goose outlet beats by dre coach outlet legend blue 11s Michael Kors outlet jordan retro 7 nike nike Michael Kors outlet legend blue 11s louis vuitton sac louis vuitton outlet louis vuitton sac nike free run uggs uggs jordan 12 moncler jackets beats by dre cheap nike free run louis vuitton outlet beats by dre cheap beats by dre cheap jordan retro 12 jordan 12 uggs outlet jordan retro 12 louis vuitton outlet beats by dre cheap louis vuitton sac jordan 11 legend blue michael kors outlet louis vuitton outlet oreo 4s jordan retro 11 uggs outlet louis vuitton outlet louis vuitton outlet michael kors outlet jordan 11 michael kors outlet air jordan 4 jordan retro 11 oreo 4s jordan 11 uggs outlet michael kors outlet jordan 11 jordan retro 11 jordan retro 7 louis vuitton outlet jordan 11 canada goose sale michael kors outlet michael kors outlet jordan retro 4 jordan retro 4 jordan 11 louis vuitton outlet legend blue 11s legend blue 11s louis vuitton outlet jordan 7 french blue air jordans jordan 4 michael kors outlet louis vuitton french blue 7s legend blue 11s jordan 11 legend blue jordan retro 11 michael kors outlet jordan 11 louis vuitton outlet air jordan 4 jordan 11 jordan retro 11 michael kors outlet jordan retro 4 jordan 11 louis vuitton outlet jordan 7 french blue jordan 4 jordan retro 11 jordan retro 11 jordan 11 louis vuitton outlet louis vuitton outlet michael kors outlet jordan 11 legend blue jordan retro 4 jordan retro 11 french blue 7s michael kors outlet jordan 11 jordan 11 jordan retro 11 jordan retro 4 jordan 11 canada goose sale michael kors outlet retro jordans louis vuitton outlet jordan 11 jordan retro 7 canada goose outlet michael kors outlet louis vuitton outlet michael kors outlet legend blue 11s
Genetics 101
  Overview of Genetics

By Amy Adams, MS

Reviewed By Amanda Toland, PhD and Adam Lowe
Last updated: October 19, 2011



The field of genetics is in the news daily, with researchers mapping the human genome, cloning animals, and identifying new disease genes. For many people, the problem is putting this information into context and understanding what recent genetic "breakthroughs" really mean in terms of our health. To help answer these questions, we've created a primer to help you understand how advances in genetics can help in the treatment of common diseases.

 
 
 

What is DNA?

Click image for larger
representation

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is a long molecule that is contained within almost all of our cells in a compartment called the nucleus. It is composed of individual units called bases. There are four types of bases, designated A (adenine), T (thymine), G (guanine), and C (cytosine).

Click image for larger
representation

Each DNA molecule is made of two individual strands paired together. Each strand consists of a series of the four bases. When the two strands pair up, an A on one strand is always across from a T on the other strand, and a C always pairs with a G. These A/T and G/C combination are called base pairs. The double-stranded molecule then twists like a coiled ribbon into a shape called a double helix. A piece of DNA millions of base pairs long — in conjunction with some proteins — is a chromosome.

top

 

What are genes?

The sequence of bases in each gene contains instructions for making a single protein.
Each chromosome contains thousands of genes, each of which is several thousand bases long. The sequence of bases in each gene contains instructions for making a single protein. Each protein serves a particular function in the body. For example, enzymes help us digest food, structural elements give our cells shape, and signaling molecules help the cells communicate with each other.

Additional bases that come before the genes on a chromosome tell cells when each gene should be used. For example, these sequences might contain instructions that a protein for making hair should only be made in certain skin cells, and not by other cells of the body.

top

 

How do we inherit our genes?

Humans inherit 23 chromosomes from each of their parents for a total of 46 chromosomes. Of these, 44 are identical in men and women — these are called autosomes. The remaining two chromosomes are called sex chromosomes, which are designated X and Y. Women inherit two X chromosomes, whereas men inherit one X chromosome from their mother and one Y chromosome from their father. Because of the way we inherit our chromosomes, we all have two copies of every gene that is contained on the autosomes. Depending on the combination of the genes we inherit, we end up with some traits that resemble our mother and others that resemble our father. Women have two copies of each gene on the X chromosome, while men have only the genes that they inherit from their mother on the X chromosome and only genes that they inherit from their father on the Y chromosome.

top

 

 

What is a mutation?

Each gene is made up of a series of bases, and those bases provide instructions for making a single protein. Any change in the sequence of bases — and therefore in the protein instructions — is a mutation. Just like changing a letter in a sentence can change the sentence's meaning, a mutation can change the instruction contained in the gene. Some mutations have little or no effect on the protein, while others cause the protein not to function at all.

top

 

What kind of problems can mutations cause?

Some mutations result in proteins that do not function normally, and may end up causing disease. There are several ways that gene mutation can change the way a protein functions, including:

  • Altered function: Some mutations result in a protein that cannot carry out its normal function in the cell, or cannot carry out that function very well. One example of this type of mutation is sickle cell anemia. In this disorder, an altered protein in red blood cells alters the shape of the red blood cell, which causes the cell to become stuck in blood vessels. This prevents cells from carrying sufficient oxygen to the rest of the body.
  • Lack of protein: Some mutations prevent the protein from being made. One example of this type of mutation is hemophilia. In this condition, a mutation results in the absence of a protein that causes blood to clot. The result is uncontrolled bleeding in response to injury.
  • Change in how much protein is made: Some mutations cause too much or too little of a normal protein to be made. Although the protein itself functions properly, it is not present in quantities that are appropriate. One example of this is in the development of some cancers. In this case, a protein that prevents additional mutations from building up can become turned off. Without this protein, the cell accumulates mutations and becomes increasingly cancerous.

top

 

   

Can we overcome our genetics?

Our risk for almost any medical condition is a function of both our genes and our environment. While we can't change our genes, we can apply our knowledge of our family medical history to predict our risk for specific problems. This, in turn, allows us to focus on the things we can change — diet, lifestyle, screening, treatment — to ensure a long, healthy life.

top

 

<<Previous Article
Main Topic Page
Next Article>>
 

 

Untitled Document

©Copyright 2011 Latest Medical, Inc.. All Rights Reserved.
Contact Us

coach factory coach outlet canada goose outlet Michael Kors outlet legend blue 11s legend blue 11s coach outlet legend blue 11s jordan retro 7 Michael Kors outlet canada goose outlet nike jordan retro 7 jordan retro 7 Michael Kors outlet canada goose outlet canada goose outlet retro jordans Michael Kors outlet coach factory louis vuitton outlet nike free run beats by dre cheap nike air max moncler jackets sac louis vuitton sac louis vuitton louis vuitton sac louis vuitton outlet moncler jackets jordan retro 12 moncler jackets beats by dre cheap jordan retro 12 jordan retro 12 louis vuitton louis vuitton sac moncler jackets beats by dre cheap jordan retro 12 canada goose outlet canada goose nike Michael Kors outlet canada goose canada goose outlet beats by dre air jordans retro jordans legend blue 11s Michael Kors outlet canada goose canada goose outlet jordan retro 7 legend blue 11s Michael Kors outlet Michael Kors outlet legend blue 11s beats by dre cheap jordan retro 7 louis vuitton outlet moncler jackets louis vuitton outlet jordan retro 12 jordan retro 12 louis vuitton outlet nike air max nike free run coach outlet nike free run moncler jackets beats by dre cheap moncler jackets louis vuitton sac beats by dre cheap louis vuitton sac coach outlet louis vuitton outlet beats by dre cheap coach outlet canada goose outlet jordan retro 7 beats by dre cheap canada goose outlet beats by dre legend blue 11s Michael Kors outlet retro jordans Michael Kors outlet jordan retro 7 jordan retro 7 coach factory jordan retro 7 Michael Kors outlet Michael Kors outlet coach outlet canada goose retro jordans canada goose outlet beats by dre cheap moncler jackets moncler jackets sac louis vuitton beats by dre cheap jordan retro 12 louis vuitton outlet moncler jackets louis vuitton sac beats by dre cheap beats by dre cheap moncler jackets louis vuitton nike free run louis vuitton sac louis vuitton outlet louis vuitton sac jordan retro 12 moncler jackets moncler jackets uggs outlet legend blue 11s Michael Kors outlet Michael Kors outlet canada goose outlet jordan retro 7 legend blue 11s Michael Kors outlet beats by dre jordan retro 7 Michael Kors outlet retro jordans retro jordans nike canada goose outlet retro jordans canada goose outlet coach factory retro jordans coach outlet air jordans moncler jackets moncler jackets beats by dre cheap louis vuitton outlet louis vuitton outlet louis vuitton sac beats by dre cheap nike air max jordan retro 12 louis vuitton outlet nike free run jordan retro 12 jordan retro 12 moncler jackets moncler jackets jordan retro 12 jordan retro 12 moncler jackets sac louis vuitton moncler jackets coach factory jordan retro 7 canada goose outlet retro jordans canada goose outlet coach factory canada goose beats by dre cheap canada goose retro jordans nike air jordans retro jordans retro jordans jordan 7 canada goose outlet legend blue 11s retro jordans jordan retro 7 coach outlet jordan retro 12 louis vuitton outlet nike air max moncler jackets louis vuitton sac beats by dre cheap coach outlet nike air max moncler jackets moncler jackets moncler jackets moncler jackets moncler jackets jordan retro 12 uggs moncler jackets louis vuitton outlet jordan retro 12 jordan retro 12 louis vuitton sac jordan retro 4 michael kors outlet jordan retro 11 jordan 11 jordan 11 uggs outlet louis vuitton outlet jordan 11 louis vuitton outlet red cements 10s air jordan 4 jordan retro 11 uggs outlet french blue 7s louis vuitton outlet jordan 11 legend blue jordan 4 jordan retro 11 jordan 10 red cements michael kors outlet jordan 13 michael kors outlet air jordans jordan 11 jordan retro 7 jordan 11 jordan retro 4 louis vuitton outlet jordan 4 jordan retro 11 legend blue 11s jordan retro 11 air jordan 11 air jordans jordan 4 michael kors outlet louis vuitton outlet french blue 7s louis vuitton outlet louis vuitton outlet louis vuitton outlet air jordans retro jordans french blue 7s uggs on sale michael kors outlet michael kors outlet jordan retro 11 canada goose uggs on sale jordan 11 jordan 11 louis vuitton outlet french blue 7s jordan 4 uggs outlet air jordan 4 jordan 10 red cements jordan 4 jordan 11 legend blue legend blue 11s louis vuitton outlet uggs outlet michael kors outlet michael kors outlet jordan retro 11 michael kors outlet jordan 7 french blue air jordans louis vuitton outlet jordan 11 michael kors outlet jordan 11 jordan 7 french blue michael kors outlet jordan retro 4 jordan retro 4 jordan retro 11 michael kors outlet jordan retro 11